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Manual of the Thompson Shell on Version 4

released under the license of Caldera

original sh.1 massaged, nroffed and htmlized.

SH (I)                       4/18/73                       SH (I)

     sh	 -  shell (command interpreter)

     sh	[ name [ arg1 ... [ arg9 ] ] ]

     Sh	is the standard	command	interpreter.  It is  the  program
     which  reads and arranges the execution of	the command lines
     typed by most users.  It may itself be called as  a  command
     to	interpret files	of commands.  Before discussing	the argu-
     ments to the Shell	used as	a command, the structure of  com-
     mand lines	themselves will	be given.

     Commands. Each command is a sequence  of  non-blank  command
     arguments separated by blanks.  The first argument	specifies
     the name of a command to be executed.   Except  for  certain
     types  of	special	 arguments discussed below, the	arguments
     other than	the command name are passed  without  interpreta-
     tion to the invoked command.

     If	the first argument is the name of an executable	file,  it
     is	invoked; otherwise the string `/bin/' is prepended to the
     argument.	(In this way most standard commands, which reside
     in	 `/bin',  are  found.)	 If no such command is found, the
     string   `/usr'	is    further	 prepended    (to    give
     `/usr/bin/command')  and  another attempt is made to execute
     the resulting file.  (Certain lesser-used commands	 live  in
     `/usr/bin'.)  If the `/usr/bin' file exists, but is not exe-
     cutable, it is used by the	Shell as a command file.  That is
     to	 say it	is executed as though it were typed from the con-
     sole.  If all attempts fail, a diagnostic is printed.

     Command lines. One	or more	commands separated by `|' or  `^'
     constitute	 a  pipeline. The standard output of each command
     but the last in a pipeline	is taken as the	standard input of
     the  next	command.   Each	command	is run as a separate pro-
     cess, connected by	pipes (see pipe(II)) to	its neighbors.	A
     command  line  contained  in parentheses `( )' may	appear in
     place of a	simple command as an element of	a pipeline.

     A command line consists of	one or more pipelines  separated,
     and  perhaps terminated by	`;' or `&'.  The semicolon desig-
     nates  sequential	execution.   The  ampersand  causes   the
     preceding	pipeline to be executed	without	waiting	for it to
     finish.  The process id of	such a pipeline	is  reported,  so
     that  it  may  be used if necessary for a subsequent wait or

     Termination Reporting. If a command (not  followed	 by  `&')
     terminates	 abnormally, a message is printed.  (All termina-
     tions other than exit and interrupt  are  considered  abnor-
     mal.)   Termination reports for commands followed by `&' are
     given upon	receipt	of the first command  subsequent  to  the
     termination of the	command, or when a wait	is executed.  The
     following is a list of the	abnormal termination messages:

	  Bus error
	  Trace/BPT trap
	  Illegal instruction
	  IOT trap
	  EMT trap
	  Bad system call
	  Floating exception
	  Memory violation

     If	a core image is	produced, `- Core dumped' is appended  to
     the appropriate message.

     Redirection of I/O. There are three character sequences that
     cause  the	immediately following string to	be interpreted as
     a special argument	to the Shell itself.   Such  an	 argument
     may appear	anywhere among the arguments of	a simple command,
     or	before or after	a  parenthesized  command  list,  and  is
     associated	with that command or command list.

     An	argument of the	form `<arg' causes the file `arg'  to  be
     used as the standard input	file of	the associated command.

     An	argument of the	form `>arg' causes file	`arg' to be  used
     as	 the  standard	output	file  for the associated command.
     `Arg' is created if it did	not exist, and	in  any	 case  is
     truncated at the outset.

     An	argument of the	form `>>arg' causes file `arg' to be used
     as	the standard output for	the associated command.	 If `arg'
     did not exist, it is created; if it did exist,  the  command
     output is appended	to the file.

     For example, either of the	command	lines

	  ls >junk; cat	tail >>junk
	  ( ls;	cat tail ) >junk

     creates, on file `junk', a	listing	of the working directory,
     followed immediately by the contents of file `tail'.

     Either of the constructs `>arg' or	`>>arg'	 associated  with
     any but the last command of a pipeline is ineffectual, as is
     `<arg' in any but the first.

     Generation	of argument lists. If any argument  contains  any
     of	 the  characters `?', `*' or `[', it is	treated	specially
     as	follows.  The current directory	 is  searched  for  files
     which match the given argument.

     The character `*' in an argument matches any string of char-
     acters in a file name (including the null string).

     The character `?' matches any single  character  in  a  file

     Square brackets `[...]' specify a class of	characters  which
     matches any single	file-name character in the class.  Within
     the brackets, each	ordinary  character  is	 taken	to  be	a
     member  of	the class.  A pair of characters separated by `-'
     places in the class each character	lexically greater than or
     equal  to	the  first  and	 less than or equal to the second
     member of the pair.

     Other characters match only the same character in	the  file

     For example, `*' matches all file	names;	`?'  matches  all
     one-character  file  names; `[ab]*.s' matches all file names
     beginning with `a'	or `b' and ending  with	 `.s';	`?[zi-m]'
     matches  all two-character	file names ending with `z' or the
     letters `i' through `m'.

     If	the argument with `*' or  `?'  also  contains  a  `/',	a
     slightly  different  procedure  is	 used:	 instead  of  the
     current directory,	the directory used is the one obtained by
     taking  the argument up to	the last `/' before a `*' or `?'.
     The matching process matches the remainder	of  the	 argument
     after  this `/'  against the files	in the derived directory.
     For example: `/usr/dmr/a*.s' matches all files in	directory
     `/usr/dmr'	which begin with `a' and end with `.s'.

     In	any event, a list of names is obtained	which  match  the
     argument.	 This list is sorted into alphabetical order, and
     the resulting sequence  of	 arguments  replaces  the  single
     argument  containing the `*', `[',	or `?'.	 The same process
     is	carried	out for	each argument (the  resulting  lists  are
     not  merged)  and	finally	 the  command  is called with the
     resulting list of arguments.

     For example: directory /usr/dmr  contains	the  files  a1.s,
     a2.s, ...,	a9.s.  From any	directory, the command

	  as /usr/dmr/a?.s

     calls as with arguments  /usr/dmr/a1.s,  /usr/dmr/a2.s,  ...
     /usr/dmr/a9.s in that order.

     Quoting. The character `\'	causes the immediately	following
     character	to  lose  any  special meaning it may have to the
     Shell;  in	this way `<', `>', and other characters	 meaning-
     ful to the	Shell may be passed as part of arguments.  A spe-
     cial case of this feature allows the  continuation	 of  com-
     mands  onto  more than one	line:  a new-line preceded by `\'
     is	translated into	a blank.

     Sequences of characters enclosed in double	(") or single (')
     quotes are	also taken literally.  For example:

	  ls | pr -h "My directory"

     causes a directory	listing	to be produced by ls, and  passed
     on	 to  pr	 to  be	 printed with the heading `My directory'.
     Quotes permit the inclusion of blanks in the heading,  which
     is	a single argument to pr.

     Argument passing. When the	Shell is invoked as a command, it
     has  additional string processing capabilities.  Recall that
     the form in which the Shell is invoked is

	  sh [ name [ arg1 ... [ arg9 ]	] ]

     The name is the name of a file which will be read and inter-
     preted.   If  not	given, this subinstance	of the Shell will
     continue to read the standard input file.

     In	command	lines in the file (not in command input), charac-
     ter  sequences  of	 the  form  `$n', where	n is a digit, are
     replaced by the nth argument to the invocation of the  Shell
     (argn).  `$0' is replaced by name.

     End of file. An end-of-file in the	Shell's	input  causes  it
     to	 exit.	 A side	effect of this fact means that the way to
     log out from UNIX is to type an EOT.

     Special commands. The following commands  are  treated  spe-
     cially by the Shell.

     chdir is done without spawning a new  process  by	executing
     sys chdir (II).

     login is done by executing	/bin/login without creating a new

     wait is done without spawning a new process by executing sys
     wait (II).

     shift is done by manipulating the arguments to the	Shell.

     `:' is simply ignored.

     Command file errors; interrupts. Any  Shell-detected  error,
     or	 an  interrupt	signal,	during the execution of	a command
     file causes the Shell to cease execution of that file.

     Process that are created with a `&' ignore	interrupts.  Also
     if	 such  a process has not redirected its	input with a `<',
     its input is automatically	redirected  to	the  zero  length
     file /dev/null.

     /etc/glob,	which interprets `*', `?', and `['.
     /dev/null as a source of end-of-file.

     `The UNIX Time-sharing System', which gives  the  theory  of
     operation of the Shell.
     chdir(I), login(I), wait(I), shift(I)

     When output is redirected,	particularly to	make a	multicom-
     mand pipeline, diagnostics	tend to	be sent	down the pipe and
     are sometimes lost	altogether.   Not  all	components  of	a
     pipeline swawned with `&' ignore interrupts.